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General information on the cultivation of leguminous crops

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Preparation and inoculation of bean seed:
- is it necessary to treat the bean seeds before sowing, what timing of seed treatment?

BEANS
1. Preparation and inoculation of  the seeds of beans:
- whether to treat the bean seeds before sowing, what timing of seed treatment?
- what are the most optimal terms of sowing the seeds of beans, including Ukrainian   weather conditions (early spring freeze)?
- What is the rate of seeding of seeds of beans per 1 ha;
what are the methods in this noteNautica when sowing seeds of beans, given different soil of the earth?
If the soil where you planted beans there are no bacteria Rhizobium,  seeding realized with inoculation (inoculation, seed) seeds. These bacteria provide for plant an opportunity to use the nitrogen in the air. After inoculation in the first year there is no need to repeat the process next year, as the bacterium after the first year is multiplied by itself. The process of inoculation must be done in the shade just after the month of October.
Bean plant has a negative effect of temperature below 0 ºC. Considering the climatic condition of Ukraine in primariiy of Crimea and the coastal regions of the Black sea the most ideal time for sowing is April, and near Kirovograd desirable is the middle of the month of may. Especially not suitable for the cultivation of beans is the North-Western part of the country, where the altitude is high and cold regions of Ukraine.
the Volume of seeds of species with a short growth for planting in 1 hectare of 70 – 100 kg, and for species with parchment layer and extended growth of 30 – 50 kg. The volume of planting varies with the size of seeds.
The perfect seeding is the sowing of agricultural machines. When sowing machines are absent the sowing is carried out manually. Bean consumes a large amount of nutrients in this fertile soil for planting must to be less dense. Planting depth on hard soil should be 2.5-5.0 cm, and on light soil should be about 5.0-10.0 cm


2.How to apply  herbicides in the care of crops? 
Application of herbicides varies depending on soil conditions. For soil with an average level of applied Nitrogen (N) 20 - 40 kg/ha, Phosphorus (P) 40 - 60 kg/ha and Potassium (K) 40 - 80 kg/ha.
during the growing period of beans in the Northern areas of Ukraine, where the volume of the cyclone higher (especially in Northern areas), in soils with acidity is desirable the application of nitrogen in form of nitrate (NO3).


3. What are the pests bean pests?
Seeds of beans have pests (Callosobruchus maculatus and Acenthoscelides obtectus). They grow feeding inside the seeds during storage. It can stop storage of seed in cold conditions and the purification of warehouse space medicine against pests. Bean aphid (Aphis fabae) and red spider (Acarina) harm Vassive stem water (Xylem sap), and tobacco thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind.) folding leaves. Against such pests can be used in addition to chemicals methods for the removal from the damaged or dead leaves.


4.What is the bean disease, disease control?
the Most common disease of beans is Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum). Especially spread in a moist environment. The disease leads to loss of germination, poor crop and commercial quality of seed and reduce the yield. The cause of the disease sometimes becomes and rotting roots (Fusarium ssp. vb.), the rust fungi (Uromyces phaseoli), mould (Erysiphe poligoni), bacterial rot (Corynebacterium flaccumfciens) yellow virus bean. These diseases can stop the chemicals as well as rotation (crop rotation) and burying crop residue on the field.


5.In order to achieve optimum yield, whether it is necessary to irrigate crops and  how many times and in what period better?
during the growth of bean requires 400-500 mm of water. It is necessary to pay attention to the non-durable watering. Beans not survive for long if the roots remain for a long time under water (water logging). Watering, especially after blossoming in Ukraine may significantly increase fertility. In dry times it will be useful watering before blossoming. But at the same time if planting soil moisture at a good level, there is no irrigation required in the initial growth stage.


6.In what stages and what is better to use  fertilizers (mineral, organic nitrogen)?
All herbicides including nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium can be used in conjunction with seeding. The most ideal application of fertilizer at a distance of 3 – 7 cm from the planting row and at a depth of 4 – 8 cm Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for bean this should survice if there is not enough in the soil.


7. What's the best time to gather the crops of beans?
Harvesting beans is about 90 – 120 days after sowing. The most ideal time for harvesting is the period when most of the beans (pods) will turn yellow but not dry out completely. Usually harvested when the seeds of beans up to 40% moisture. Early harvesting will atrophy housing and later emptying of seed box. After harvesting, the beans left on the field for drying (about 10 days).

LENTILS
1.What best fit the soil for sowing the seeds of lentils?
lentils do not require a special choice of the soil. Not necessarily that the soil was fruitful. But the yield is high in acid soils (slight asidic soil). Along with this will be useful the density of the soil (heavy soil).


2. What is the seeding rate of lentil per 1 ha, planting methods?  
Seeding rate for species with small seeds 40 – 80 kg/g, and for species with large seeds should be 100-140 kg/ha. sowing Depth of about 4-5 cm If the seeds are small you can not seed deeply. Sowing is performed manually. But it is useful the use of sowing machines. Also it can be used the sowing machine for wheat (sowing machine).


3.The period vegetali after highevania the seeds of lentils?
Can be grown on the southern shores of Ukraine the winter crops in this case because of adequate soil moisture will not need watering. But in the Northern areas especially in the highlands and North-West will be useful to sow in the spring. Under such conditions, will increase yields irrigation after rassvetnye.


4.The most common lentil pests, wrestling with them?
On the stem of lentils biggest pest is the Stino (Stino spp.) pest listy. These pests develop only in a humid environment. In the period of growth of the disease is not advisable to water. Along with this is a dangerous weevil (Bruchus). These pests are not active at low temperature, the seeds should be stored at temperature below 7 ºC. And can be harmful to the pest green vegetable bug Nezera virdula L., luceria aphid (Aphis cracivora Koch.) and the clover seed Apion.


5.The lentil diseases, diseases?
diseases of lentil pathogen Fusarium fungus (Fusarium oxyporum) can be dangerous at temperatures above 17 ºC. You can slow down the disease by the use of phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Wrath of the roots is the characteristic balesi lentils. This can be avoided by treatment of seeds before sowing. In addition occurs and rust (Uromycec fabae), which can cause loss of the full product. In the observation of the disease is necessary to apply the medicine and remove sickly plants. Dangerous for the disease is the time of blossoming. Along with this common mould of Erysiphe poligoni and Ascochyta lentis.


6.Do I need to water the crops of lentils, how many times?
the lentil Plant will demand approximately 400-500 mm of water. With winter sowing in southern Ukraine, on the coast-regions close to the Mediterranean sea may not be not required in watering. But when spring sowing on average and the Northern areas (Kiev and inland areas), irrigation after blossoming increase the crops.


7. The period of maturation and harvesting of lentils?
the Period of harvesting lentil is short and critical. Cleaning is performed by yellowing beans (pods). When is the right time cleaning should be done within 7 - 8 days. If there is no harvesting the crops may sypitsya.

8. How to harvest lentils?
If the cleaning will be done by hand it should be at 30% seed moisture. When cleaning machine seed moisture should be at 13 - 14%.


9. How to achieve maximum application of all the modern technology good results of harvest of lentils? 
Mechanical sowing and harvesting of lentils will increase productivity. At the same time it resistance of lentil to cold weather towards the development of winter sowing is essential to improve the types persistent cold. Lentils is a type of plant, which actively uses the nitrogen (N) of air and saves using less fertilizer on seed bacterium Rhizobium before sowing.

Chickpeas
1. The needs of Central Asia in the Ukrainian chickpeas.
More than 90% of pea production occurs in Asian countries. But the consumption in these countries is more. India consumes more than 65% of the production is the biggest market. Ukraine will be able to supply peas to the countries of Central Asia, India and Pakistan. But the production of chickpea in Ukraine is low, which is almost equal to zero. We must teach the people to spread the chickpea, which is easy to grow.

Автор : btamedia press
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